A singly linked list with a sentinel implementation source code

This snippet submitted by yzb3 on 2012-04-04. It has been viewed 6980 times.
Rating of 4.9 with 21 votes

 /*
	# a singly linked list with a sentinel node implementation #
	
	a sentinel allows to gather useful information concerning 
	the list and access them in O(1) time; most of the actions 
	would be much simpler without last, min or max, but they
	are good learning material; the sentinel itself	makes many 
	operations easier - no more "fun" with double pointers.
	
	TL;DR: compile and enjoy dynamic custom linked list management
		   analyze to learn about pointers, structs and linked lists
*/

/* LIBS */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <float.h>

/* DEFS */

typedef float node_data; //stack list data type - set for integers

typedef struct _node Node; //short name for the node type
struct _node //node structure format
{
	node_data data;
	Node *next;
};

typedef struct sentinel Sentinel; //stack sentinel
struct sentinel //sentinel node format
{
	int count;
	node_data sum;
	node_data max;
	node_data min;
	Node *head;
	Node *last;
};

/* PROTOS */

void stack_init(Sentinel **sentinel); //initialize the stack
void stack_push(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d); //pushes a value d onto the stack
void stack_append(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d); //appends a value to the stack
void stack_pop(Sentinel *sentinel); //removes the head from the stack & returns its value
void stack_drop(Sentinel *sentinel); //removes the last node
void stack_print(Sentinel *sentinel); //prints all the stack list data
void stack_clear(Sentinel *sentinel); //clears the stack of all elements
int stack_elem(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d); //checks for an element
int stack_count(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d); //counts occurencies of d
node_data stack_max(Sentinel *sentinel); //returns stack maximum
node_data stack_min(Sentinel *sentinel); //returns stack minimum

void menu(Sentinel *sentinel); //program menu

/* MAIN */

int main(void)
{	
	//stack initialization
	Sentinel *sentinel = NULL;
	stack_init(&sentinel);
	
	menu(sentinel);

	return 0;
}

/* STACK LIST FOOS */

void stack_init(Sentinel **sentinel)
{
	//initialization of sentinel information
	*sentinel = malloc(sizeof(Sentinel));
	Sentinel *sntnl = *sentinel;
	sntnl -> count = 0;
	sntnl -> sum = 0;
	sntnl -> max = -FLT_MAX; //minGW fails @ FLT_MIN
	sntnl -> min = FLT_MAX;
	sntnl -> head = NULL;
	sntnl -> last = NULL;
}

void stack_push(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d)
{
	Node *node_new = malloc(sizeof(Node));
	if(!node_new) {puts("Out of memory"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE);}
	
	//sentinel info
	if(!(sentinel -> last))
		sentinel -> last = node_new;
	
	//standard push [O(1)]
	node_new -> data = d;
	node_new -> next = sentinel -> head;
	sentinel -> head = node_new;
	
	//sentinel info
	++(sentinel -> count);
	sentinel -> sum += d;
	if(d > sentinel -> max)
		sentinel -> max = d;
	if(d < sentinel -> min)
		sentinel -> min = d;
}

void stack_append(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d)
{
	Node *node_new = malloc(sizeof(Node));
	if(!node_new) {puts("Out of memory"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE);}
	
	//node init
	node_new -> data = d;
	node_new -> next = NULL;
	
	if(!(sentinel -> head)) //if the stack is empty, just do the push [O(1)]
	{	
		//standard push
		node_new -> next = sentinel -> head;
		sentinel -> head = node_new;
	}
	else //otherwise append to the last node [O(n)]
	{
		Node *node_curr = sentinel -> head;
		
		while(node_curr)
		{
			if(!(node_curr -> next))
			{
				node_curr -> next = node_new;
				break;
			}
			node_curr = node_curr -> next;
		}
	}
	
	//sentinel info [O(1)]
	sentinel -> last = node_new;
	++(sentinel -> count);
	sentinel -> sum += d;
	if(d > sentinel -> max)
		sentinel -> max = d;
	if(d < sentinel -> min)
		sentinel -> min = d;
}

void stack_pop(Sentinel *sentinel)
{
	Node *node_togo = sentinel -> head;
	int flag = 0;
	
	if(node_togo)
	{
		//sentinel info [O(1)]
		--(sentinel -> count);
		sentinel -> sum -= node_togo -> data;
		if(node_togo -> data == sentinel -> max)
			flag = 1;
		if(node_togo -> data == sentinel -> min)
			flag += 2;
		if(!(node_togo -> next))
			sentinel -> last = NULL;
		
		//standard pop [O(1)]
		sentinel -> head = node_togo -> next;
		free(node_togo);
		
		//sentinel info [O(n)]
		switch(flag)
		{
		case 1:
			sentinel -> max = stack_max(sentinel);
			break;
		case 2:
			sentinel -> min = stack_min(sentinel);
			break;
		case 3:
			sentinel -> max = stack_max(sentinel);
			sentinel -> min = stack_min(sentinel);
			break;
		}
	}
}

void stack_drop(Sentinel *sentinel)
{
	Node *node_togo = sentinel -> last;
	int flag = 0;
	
	if(node_togo)
	{
		//sentinel info [O(1)]
		--(sentinel -> count);
		sentinel -> sum -= node_togo -> data;
		if(node_togo -> data == sentinel -> max)
			flag = 1;
		if(node_togo -> data == sentinel -> min)
			flag += 2;
		
		//if there is only one node, inform the sentinel [O(1)]
		if(sentinel -> head == sentinel -> last)
		{
			sentinel -> head = NULL;
			sentinel -> last = NULL;
		}
		
		//drop the last node [O(n)]
		free(node_togo);
		Node *node_curr = sentinel -> head;
		while(node_curr)
		{
			if(node_curr -> next == node_togo)
			{
				sentinel -> last = node_curr;
				node_curr -> next = NULL;
				break;
			}
			node_curr = node_curr -> next;
		}
		
		//sentinel info [O(n)]
		switch(flag)
		{
		case 1:
			sentinel -> max = stack_max(sentinel);
			break;
		case 2:
			sentinel -> min = stack_min(sentinel);
			break;
		case 3:
			sentinel -> max = stack_max(sentinel);
			sentinel -> min = stack_min(sentinel);
			break;
		}
	}
}

void stack_print(Sentinel *sentinel)
{
	Node *node_curr = sentinel -> head;

	if(!sentinel -> head) //if the stack is empty, report it [O(1)]
		puts("nothing");
	else //otherwise print all the data from nodes [O(n)]
	{
		while(node_curr)
		{
			printf("%.4f ", node_curr -> data);
			node_curr = node_curr -> next;
		}
		putchar('\n');
	}
}

void stack_clear(Sentinel *sentinel)
{
	//pop everything [O(n)]
	while(sentinel -> head)
		stack_pop(sentinel);
}

int stack_elem(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d)
{
	Node *node_curr = sentinel -> head;
	
	//traverse the stack in search for d [O(n)]
	while(node_curr)
	{
		if(node_curr -> data == d)
			return 1;
		else
			node_curr = node_curr -> next;
	}
	return 0;
}

int stack_count(Sentinel *sentinel, node_data d)
{
	Node *node_curr = sentinel -> head;
	int n = 0;
	
	//traverse the stack in search for ds [O(n)]
	while(node_curr)
	{
		if(node_curr -> data == d)
			++n;
		node_curr = node_curr -> next;
	}
	return n;
}

node_data stack_max(Sentinel *sentinel)
{
	Node *node_curr = sentinel -> head;
	
	//if the stack is empty, set the maximum to potential minimum [O(1)]
	if(!node_curr)
		return -FLT_MAX; //minGW fails @ FLT_MIN
	
	//otherwise search for it [O(n)]
	node_data max = node_curr -> data;
	while(node_curr)
	{
		if(node_curr -> data > max)
			max = node_curr -> data;
		node_curr = node_curr -> next;
	}
	return max;
}

node_data stack_min(Sentinel *sentinel)
{
	Node *node_curr = sentinel -> head;

	//if the stack is empty, set the minimum to potential maximum [O(1)]
	if(!node_curr)
		return FLT_MAX;
	
	//otherwise search for it [O(n)]
	node_data min = node_curr -> data;
	while(node_curr)
	{
		if(node_curr -> data < min)
			min = node_curr -> data;
		node_curr = node_curr -> next;
	}
	return min;
}

/* MAIN MENU */

void menu(Sentinel *sentinel)
{
	//variables
	char command[64];
	node_data x;
	char info[] =
		"\nAvailable commands are: \nprint, push x, pop,"
		" len, sum, avg, max, \nmin, elem x, count x, "
		"append x, drop, \nhead, last, clear, help, "
		"exit.";
	
	puts("Welcome to the linked list command center");
	puts(info);
	printf("\n");
	
	//program menu
	while(fgets(command, 64, stdin))
	{
		//PUSH
		if(strstr(command, "push "))
		{
			sscanf(command, "push %f", &x);
			stack_push(sentinel, x);
			printf("Pushed %.4f\n", x);
		}
		//POP
		else if(!strcmp(command, "pop\n"))
		{
			if(sentinel -> head)
			{
				stack_pop(sentinel);
				puts("Popped the top node");
			}
			else
				puts("Nothing to pop");
		}
		//LEN
		else if(!strcmp(command, "len\n"))
			printf("Stack length is %d\n", sentinel -> count);
		//SUM
		else if(!strcmp(command, "sum\n"))
			printf("Stack sum is %.4f\n", sentinel -> sum);
		//AVG
		else if(!strcmp(command, "avg\n"))
		{
			if(!(sentinel -> count))
				puts("Stack avg is 0.0000");
			else
				printf("Stack avg is %.4f\n", (sentinel -> sum)/(sentinel -> count));
		}
		//MAX
		else if(!strcmp(command, "max\n"))
		{
			if(sentinel -> head)
				printf("Stack maximum is %.4f\n", sentinel -> max);
			else
				puts("Stack is empty");
		}
		//MIN
		else if(!strcmp(command, "min\n"))
		{
			if(sentinel -> head)
				printf("Stack minimum is %.4f\n", sentinel -> min);
			else
				puts("Stack is empty");
		}
		//ELEM
		else if(strstr(command, "elem "))
		{
			sscanf(command, "elem %f", &x);
			if(stack_elem(sentinel, x))
				printf("Stack does contain %.4f\n", x);
			else
				printf("Stack does not contain %.4f\n", x);
		}
		//COUNT
		else if(strstr(command, "count "))
		{
			sscanf(command, "count %f", &x);
			printf("There are %d elements that equal %.4f\n", stack_count(sentinel, x), x);
		}
		//PRINT
		else if(!strcmp(command, "print\n"))
		{
			printf("Stack contains ");
			stack_print(sentinel);
		}
		//APPEND
		else if(strstr(command, "append "))
		{
			sscanf(command, "append %f", &x);
			stack_append(sentinel, x);
			printf("Appended %.4f\n", x);
		}
		//DROP
		else if(!strcmp(command, "drop\n"))
		{
			if(sentinel -> last)
			{
				stack_drop(sentinel);
				puts("Dropped the last node");
			}
			else
				puts("Nothing to drop");
		}
		//HEAD
		else if(!strcmp(command, "head\n"))
			if(sentinel -> head)
				printf("Stack head contains %.4f\n", sentinel -> head -> data);
			else
				puts("Stack is empty");
		//LAST
		else if(!strcmp(command, "last\n"))
		{
			if(sentinel -> last)
				printf("Stack last contains %.4f\n", sentinel -> last -> data);
			else
				puts("Stack is empty");
		}
		//CLEAR
		else if(!strcmp(command, "clear\n"))
		{
			stack_clear(sentinel);
			puts("Stack was cleared");
		}
		//HELP
		else if(!strcmp(command, "help\n"))
			puts(info);
		//EXIT
		else if(!strcmp(command, "exit\n"))
			exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
		//DEFAULT
		else
			puts("Unknown command");
		printf("\n");
	}
}
 




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